Below are definitions of many terms commonly used in the EV community.
- EV (Electric Vehicle): A broad category that includes all vehicles that are fully powered by Electricity or an Electric Motor.
- BEV (Battery Electric vehicle): Also known as an “All-electric” vehicle BEV’s utilize energy that is stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEV’s sustain their power through the batteries and therefore must be plugged into an external electricity source in order to recharge.
- EVD: Electric Vehicle Driver
- Regenerative braking: A method of breaking used by EV in which energy from the braking of the vehicle is stored and used.
- ICE (Internal Combustion Engine): An ICE is powered by combustible fuel, often petroleum or natural gas products.
- ICEV (Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle): All vehicles that are powered by Fossil Fuels are ICEVs.
- HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles): An HEV utilizes a dual system of electric propulsion and an internal combustion engine.
- PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles): PHEVs contain a battery that is able to be charged with an external electric power source, PHEV’s are a mixture of all-electric vehicles and ICEV’s.
- NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle): BEV’s that are limited to streets with lower speed limits, typically around 45mph. NEV’s are all-electric and can be recharged using a standard outlet.
- EREV (Extended-range electric vehicles): Vehicles that have the ability to run on a gasoline engine if the battery gets low
- EVB (Electric Vehicle Battery): A battery that is used to power the movement of a BEV.
- AC (Alternating Current): A charge of electricity that regularly changes direction, which is the kind of power that comes from the power plant to homes and businesses.
- DC (Direct Current): A charge of electricity that flows in one direction and is the type of power that comes from a battery.
- AER (All-Electric Range): The range any EV is able to reach solely using electricity.
- Range Anxiety: Worry or stress that is caused due to the fear that an electric car will run out of battery power before the destination is reached.
- kW (Kilowatt): A unit of electric power.
- EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment): Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs. EVSE can charge a wide variety of EVs including BEVs and PHEVs.
- Level 1 Charging: Charging your EV using a common household outlet up to 120v. Level 1 is the slowest method of charging and can take up to 24 hours or more to fully charge your EV.
- Level 2 Charging: Charges your EV at 240v using an installed outlet. Level 2 chargers are the most recommended chargers to EV owners. Depending on your EV model and charger, Level 2 can give you vehicle 5x as quickly as Level 1 which translates to up to 26 miles per hour of charging.
- Level 3 Charging: Also known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour. Level three chargers are currently rare as they’re very expensive and require more power.
- JEVS G105–1993: Also known as CHAdeMO, it is a method developed to quickly charge Electric Vehicles through the use of a special adapter that delivers up to 62.5 kW. This is used in Japan.
- SAE J1772: The standard North American electrical connection for Electric Vehicles. Generally works with Level 1 and Level 2 systems.
- IEC 62196: Also known as the Mennekes, it is a type of connectors that are used to charge Electric Vehicles in Europe.
- Combined Charging System: Another method to quickly charge electric vehicles through a special electric connection. CCSs often use the SAE J1772, which is the North American electrical standard for Electric Vehicles.
- Tesla Supercharger: A super-fast charging system that can provide up to 120 kW directly to the car’s battery. Currently, these systems are only available to Teslas.
- Charge Circuit Interrupting Device (CCID): A safety protection component within an EVSE that reduces the chance of a person getting an electric shock.
- V2G (Vehicle-to-grid): A system that allows Electric Vehicles to communicate with the power grid to manage the flow of electricity in either direction.
- GHG (Green House Gas): A gas such as Carbon Dioxide that contributes to global warming through the absorption of infrared radiation.
- Off Peak Charging: Charging your electrical vehicle at certain lowest cost off-peak hours.
- Battery Management System: An electronic system within the Vehicle that manages and protects the battery.
- LIB (Lithium-ion battery): Also known as a Li-ion, it is a common rechargeable battery.
- VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery): A rechargeable lead-acid battery.
- NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride): A less reliable rechargeable battery.
- Molten salt battery: A type of battery that utilizes molten salts as an electrolyte.
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): A car that runs purely on electric power, stored in an onboard battery that is charged from mains electricity (typically at a dedicated ChargePoint).
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV): A car with a combination of a traditional internal combustion engine and a rechargeable battery, allowing for either pure electric-powered driving or extended range from a combination of the petrol engine and electric motor.
Plug-in vehicle (PiV): A blanket term for any vehicle with a plug socket, including BEVs and PHEVs.
Electric vehicle (EV): Can be used as a catch-all term for BEVs, PHEVs, and REx, but often used to refer to pure electric vehicles i.e. BEVs.
Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV): A car that has official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km.
Range-extended EV (REx): An EV that has only an electric drivetrain, but a small petrol generator to charge the battery when the range is depleted for longer trips. Often considered a type of PHEV.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV): A 100% fossil fueled hybrid car. The most common is the Toyota Prius. A small battery is charged through regenerative braking that generates some electric power in tandem to a combustion engine, but all energy originates from petrol.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV): This term refers to an EV which uses a hydrogen fuel cell to power its electric motor. The fuel cells create electricity to power the car. Alternative Fuel VehicleThis term is used for a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petrol or diesel. It includes engines that don’t solely rely on petroleum such as PHEV, EV, FCEVs, but also includes HEVs.
ZEV: Zero Emissions Vehicle — ZEVs have zero tailpipe emissions are 98% cleaner than the average new model year vehicle. These include battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.