Electric Car Batteries and Characteristics

Electric Car Batteries and Characteristics

Editor Wakesho

Batteries are essential in a car system. Battery Electric Vehicles are life because only electrical energy stored in the shower is the only energy that drives the EV.  There are no other sources. The types of electric car batteries also depend on the car system.  Lithium-ion batteries are the most common used. Also ZEBRA is batteries that are considered zero-emission while NiMH are suitable for hybrids.

Types of Electric Car Batteries

Electric car batteries differ from SLI batteries (starting, lighting, and ignition). SLI batteries are batteries that you install in gasoline or diesel cars. This type of electric car battery is designed as an energy storage system, capable of delivering power for long and sustainable periods.

There are five types of electric vehicle batteries, as follows

  • Lithium-Ion (Li-On)
  • Nickel-Metal Hybrid (NiMH)
  • Lead Acid (SLA)
  • Ultracapacitor
  • ZEBRA (Zero Emissions Batteries Research Activity)
Lithium-Ion Battery (Li-On)

It is the most used battery type.  This battery may already be familiar to us because it is also used in portable electronic equipment such as cellphones and laptops. The main difference is a matter of scale. Its physical capacity and size on electric cars are much more significant therefore referred to as a traction battery pack.

These batteries have a very high power to weight ratio. This type of electric car battery is increased energy efficiency. Performance at high temperatures is also good. The battery has a more excellent energy ratio per weight – a parameter that is very important for electric car batteries. The smaller the battery weight (same kWh capacity) means the car can travel further with a single charge.

It also has a low “self-discharge” level, so the battery is better than any other battery in maintaining its ability to hold its full charge. Additionally, most Li-on batteries can be recycled, making it the right choice for those interested in environmentally conscious electric cars. BEV cars and PHEVs use the most lithium batteries.

Li-on battery Types
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) — LFP
  • Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2) — NCA
  • Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) — NMC
  • Lithium Titanate (Li2TiO3) — LTO
  • Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) — LMO
  • Lithium Cobalt Oxide(LiCoO2) — LCO
Hybrid Nickel-Metal (NiMH) Batteries

NiMH batteries are more widely used by hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV) but are also used successfully in some BEV cars. This type of hybrid electric car battery does not get power from the outside (can be recharged from an outside source of the car system). The recharging of hybrid electric car batteries depends on engine speed, wheels, and regenerative braking.

NiMH batteries have a longer life cycle than lithium-ion batteries or SLA batteries. NiMH batteries are safe and tolerant of incorrect usage. The most significant disadvantages of NiMH batteries include:

  • The price is relatively higher
  • High self-discharge rate
  • Generate significant heat at high temperatures.

These deficiencies make NiMH less effective as a battery for electric cars whose batteries must be recharged from outside the system, such as from the PLN network. That is why the car battery is the most widely applied by hybrid cars.

Lead-Acid (SLA) Batteries

SLA (lead-acid) batteries are the oldest rechargeable batteries. Compared to lithium and NiMH batteries, lead-acid batteries lose capacity and are much heavier, but the price is relatively low and safe. There are large capacity SLA electric car batteries under development, but SLA batteries are now only used by commercial vehicles as a secondary storage system.

Ultra-capacitor Batteries

The ultra-capacitor battery is not like the general definition of a battery. In contrast to other electrochemical batteries, this type of electric vehicle battery stores polarized liquid between the electrode and the electrolyte. As the surface area of the liquid increases, the energy storage capacity also increases. Like SLA batteries, ultra-capacitor batteries are very suitable as secondary storage devices in electric vehicles. It is because the ultra-capacitor helps electrochemical batteries increase their load levels. Also, ultra-capacitor can provide extra power to electric vehicles during acceleration and regenerative braking.

ZEBRA Batteries

The battery for ZEBRA electric cars is a low-temperature variant of sodium-sulfur (NAS) batteries and is a development of ZEBRA (originally “Zeolite Battery Research Africa” ​​then became a “Zero Emissions Batteries Research Activity” battery) in 1985. From the beginning, ZEBRA batteries were indeed developed for electric vehicle applications. The battery uses NaAlCl4 with Na + -beta-alumina ceramic electrolyte.

Characteristics of ZEBRA batteries

  • High power cell so that it fits as an electric car battery
  • High-temperature batteries operate at more than 270 ° C
  • The chemical Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaCl) provides a nominal operating cell voltage of 2.58 Volts
Advantages of ZEBRA battery
  • The high energy density (5 times higher than SLA batteries)
  • Large cells (up to 500Ah) allow
  • Life cycle> 1000 cycles
  • Short circuit tolerance
  • Safer than Sodium Sulfur cells
  • The typical cell failure is shorted but does not cause the battery to damage fully.
  • Low-cost ingredients
Disadvantages of ZEBRA battery
  • Suitable for large capacity batteries (> 20KWh)
  • Limited size and capacity range
  • Only one factory in the world produces this battery.
  • High internal resistance
  • Liquid sodium electrode
  • High operating temperature.
  • Preheating is required to get the battery up to an operating temperature of 270 ° C (up to 24 hours from cold conditions)
  • It uses 14% of its own capacity per day to maintain temperature when not in use.
  • Thermal management is required.

Source: Electric Car Batteries and Characteristics | PT. Omazaki. www.omazaki.co.id/en/electric-car-batteries-and-their-characteristics/ lifted 10/2/2021